During the climatic normal period between 1961 and 1990 (standard reference) the average annual air temperature was about 5.8°C. It reached a maximum of 7.8°C in 1975 and 1989. In the last 28 years (1991-2018) the mean annual temperature increased to 6.9°C, i.e. by 1.1°C. It has been particularly high since 2007 with a peak of 8.1 °C in 2015. The mean monthly temperature of the coldest and hottest months (i.e. January and July) in the periods of 1961-1990 and 1991-2018 were -8.2 vs -5.4°C and 17.5 vs 19.7°C respectively.
The highest increase in mean monthly temperatures in comparison to the climatic normal was observed for the winter and summer periods along with March (Figure 1). Moreover, this trend has accelerated in the recent five years (2014-2018) when the highest temperature rise was calculated as more than 3°C for February and March. It was particularly hot in July of 2014, 2016, and 2018, when the average air temperature exceeded 20°C, which corresponds to the past long-term average of Central Ukraine (e.g., Dnipro city). In 2017 and 2018 the summer days (maximum daily temperature exceeds 25°C) were observed as earliest as in April, which is additional evidence of the recent climate change in the region. Also, the local population and land users observe and confirm a significant increase in average daily temperature, especially in winter and summer months. Additionally, the longer duration of heat and drought periods is highlighted among the participants of the expert workshops.