Excessive, uncontrolled land and resource use put pressure on nature by reducing ecosystem functionality. In the research areas, the dominant land use activities include forestry and agriculture. Mainstream, intensive forest management practices like clear-cutting, monoculture cultivation, and overharvesting degrade and harm forest ecosystems.
Besides forestry, both intensive and extensive agricultural activities often lead to soil degradation, soil compaction, erosion, and salinization. Soils become marginalized as the crop yields decrease. High levels of fertilizers, insecticides, fungicides, and herbicides are used to (re-)cultivate and plant.
Land use activities make the forest- and agro-ecosystems less resilient to climate change and reduce urgently needed functions and regulating capacities.
Other examples of land use types putting pressure on the ecosystems are land conversion, intensive aquaculture, urban and infrastructure development, tourism, and uncontrolled recreational activities.